China’s Espionage Recruitment Motivations – Getting Rid of the MICE

Nicholas Eftimiades
( A veteran of the United States Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of State and the Defense Intelligence Agency, hardly needs an introduction. He is the author of Chinese Intelligence Operations (1994) and the seminal Chinese Espionage Operations and Tactics (2020), which is widely viewed as the standard work on the subject)

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Note: The information and view set out in this research paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the European Intelligence Academy. Neither the European Intelligence Academy, the Research Institute for European and American Studies, nor any person acting on their behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein. Responsibility for the information and views set out in this research paper lies entirely with the author.

Nicholas Eftimiades argues that China’s human intelligence (HUMINT) collection efforts are both extensive and encompassing. What is more, they present distinctive challenges for Western intelligence and security services, as well as private industries. He points out that the targets of China’s commercial espionage and academic research theft often lack the organizational structure, experience, or a comprehensive legal framework to effectively counteract these threats. On the positive side, Eftimiades notes that, in the past five years, U.S. intelligence and law enforcement agencies have established new organizational structures and partnerships with private industries. These initiatives aim to improve communication, raise awareness of threats, provide training, and implement best practices. However, these measures should be seen as just the initial responses to navigate the evolving global intelligence landscape driven by the People’s Republic of China (PRC), he argues….. Read more

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