Arguments against the use of armed guards

• Inability to ensure qualities or standards of
PSCs (rent-a-cops)
• Not enough qualified guards to go around
• Unregulated industry
• IMO, IG, BIMCO and Intertanko do not
recommend use of weapons
• Private contracts make it easier for PSCs to
evade compliance with applicable laws
leaving shipowners to be ultimately
• Uncertainty about rules on the use of force and
potential criminal liability of PSCs and
• Will escalate violence and prompt pirates to
be more aggressive in future attacks and
treatment of existing hostages
• Quagmire of various countries’ laws regarding
possession or licensing of weapons carried on
board vessel
• Complicates shipowner’s existing insurance